* Note ~ most words italicized in the left column will match with “quoted” words in the right column, and near-matches are quoted AND indented. We mean to be clear – but both our (Ann’s) Columns are directly informed by Schore’s text).
Schore’s and/or dictionaries side:
Introduction: Regulation theory and the primacy of affective structures and functions (Schore, 2012, p. 72)
|Ann’s #1 Column:||
Ann’s #2 Column
|“Primary emotional responses have been preserved through phylogenesis because they are adaptive. They provide an immediate assessment of the extent to which goals or needs are being met in interaction with the environment, and they reset the organism behaviorally, physiologically, cognitively, and experientially to adjust to these changing circumstances” (Schore, 2012, pp. 72-73).
“Phylogenesis n. the evolutionary development and diversification of a species or group or organisms, or of a feature of an organism. Compare with ontogenesis” (Merriam-Webster Unabridged, 2017, np.).
|As a Multiple, “phylogenesis” concerns development of a Multiple system and the diversification of selfs within that system as an adaptive act of survival (going-on) from within our “environment.” Our environment had included long-standing abuses (sexual, physical, emotional, and spiritual), before the age of four that should have annihilated us.
Unconsciously, our brain (as others in our situation) responded to the outside assault forces by our real life “needs” to survive this environment.
We have distinguished younger selfs such as Mimi (3 months), Crystal (8 months), and Gracie (18 months), who still carry our “primary emotional responses” to the initial abuses, especially sexual abuse by our maternal grandfather. Each has her own “behaviors, thoughts, physiology and experiences” (Schore, 2012, pp. 72-73).
|00.01 As an “adaptive” act of survival, “phylogenesis” assists in the “development” of a Multiple system, and in the “diversification” of selfs within a set environment (Merriam-Webster Unabridged, 2017, np. & Schore, 2012, pp. 72-73).
00.02 The Multiple’s brain survives its impossible condition by unconsciously “resetting” as separate selfs. These selfs assist the person’s strong need to live “go-on,” by sharing the inescapable burden or force of sexual, physical, emotional, and spiritual abuse (Schore, 2012, pp. 72-73).
00.03 The various selfs each share “primary emotional responses,” and they each have their own “behaviors, thoughts, physiology, and experiences” (Schore, 2012, pp. 72-73).
|“…the adaptive survival functions of the right hemisphere, the “locus of emotional brain,” are dominant in relational contexts at all stages of the life span, including the intimate context of psychotherapy” (Schore, 2012, p. 73).||We have much to thank the “right hemisphere”/right brain. We seem also to now see a need of connecting right brain with relationships, of which occur throughout our lifespan (Schore, 2012, p. 73).||00.04 The “right brain (hemisphere)” handles relationships throughout our “lifespan” (Schore, 2012, p. 73).|
|“…the right brain implicit self represents the biological substrate of the human unconscious mind and is intimately involved in the processing of bodily based affective information associated with various motivational states” (p. 73).
“implicit adj. capable of being understood from something else though unexpressed: implied” (Merriam-Webster Unabridged, 2017, np.).
“substrate n. the base on which an organism lives” (2017, np.).
|It seems that Schore’s implied “self” might become our various selfs. They could each own a “biological” base within the unconscious mind – gained through body memories/emotions, and which also, individually express our goals and needs (p. 73).||00.05 Each Multiple self has a “biological base” in the “right brain”/”unconscious mind” which “processes information from our body’s emotional memories/ experiences” and connects to “motivational states,” which is an expression of her goals and needs (Schore, 2012, p. 73).|
|“To appreciate the patient’s motivation, we need to … discern the emotional experience he or she seeks. At times, the goal sought will be self-evident to patient and [therapist]. At other times, the goal will lie out of awareness and will be difficult to ascertain.… The golden thread in assessing motivation lies in discovering the affect being sought in conjunction with the behavior being investigated” (p. 73).||To appreciate the selfs needs to go-on (“motivation”), Schore infers we need to understand our value point (Cooper, 1985). Schore states, her “motivation” is to “seek” certain “emotional experiences”. Sometimes the “goal is evident and sometimes it isn’t.”
As a Multiple, we try to better understand, or pursue our many selfs’ goals within active relationships in the present, such as we have with Dr. Marvin, or Rich. The more trust developed, the better chances of negotiating the hidden emotions.
“The golden thread” appears to be connecting the “emotion being sought” (yet unanswered), “with the behavior being investigated” (our best bet so far – as if we role-play our selfs’ needs within our relationships – inner or outer).
We also must consider, the emotional stress of being overwhelmed by feelings and emotions in the present by contradictory needs not to “shake the boat” – need to take breaks – aroused/calmed while yet trying to communicate in our relationships (p. 73).
|00.06 Selfs seek (conscious or unconscious) “emotional experiences,” which are steered by fulfilling her unique “goals” and needs by relationship to others (Schore, 2012, p. 73).|
|“In most people, the verbal, conscious and serial information processing takes place in the left hemisphere, while the unconscious, nonverbal and emotional information processing mainly takes place in the right hemisphere” (p. 73).
“Serial processing n. Computational processing in which steps are executed one at a time in a fixed sequence. This is the way in which ordinary computers function, but the brain is believed to use “parallel processing” (Coleman, 2001, np.).
“parallel processing n. Computational processing in which a process is split into subunits that are executed simultaneously by independent processing units” (2001, np).
“The right hemisphere is dominant for the recognition of emotions, the expression of spontaneous and intense emotions, and the nonverbal communication of emotions” (p. 73).
|“left hemisphere” = “verbal, conscious and sequential information processing”
“right hemisphere” = “unconscious, nonverbal communication, and emotional information (recognition and the expression of spontaneous/intense)” (p. 73).
|“The central role of this hemisphere in survival functions is outlined by Schutz: The right hemisphere operates a distributed network for rapid responding to danger and other urgent problems. It preferentially processes environmental challenge, stress and pain and manages self-protective responses such as avoidance and escape.…” (p. 73).||“right hemisphere” = “survival functions”
1. “operates distributed network for rapid responding to danger and other urgent problems”
2. “processes environmental challenge, stress and pain”
3. 3. “manages self-protective responses (avoidance and escape)” (p. 73).
|“Freud speculated, “Unconscious ideas continue to exist after repression as actual structures in the system Ucs, whereas all that corresponds in that system to unconscious affects is a potential beginning which is prevented from developing” (p. 73).
“Correspond intransitive verb. to be in conformity or agreement” Merriam-Webster Unabridged, 2015, np.).
“repression n. a painful memory that has been repressed [pushed down: checked by or as if by pressure: keep or hold in check: restrain from spreading, increasing, or doing harm: or to exclude from consciousness] … can reoccur spontaneously or during psychotherapy … and believed to be therapeutic … let off steam ….” (2015, np.).
“principle of constancy n. In psychoanalysis, the proposition that the quantity of psychic energy within the mental apparatus remains constant, regulation being achieved through the discharge of excess energy in abreaction and avoidance of increase through defense mechanisms (2015, np.).
“abreaction n. In psychoanalysis, a release or discharge of emotional energy following the recollection of a painful memory that has been repressed. It can occur spontaneously or during psychotherapy, and may lead to catharsis” (2015, np.).
“defense mechanism n. A term used originally in psychoanalysis and later more widely in psychology and psychiatry to refer to a process whereby the ego protects itself against demands of the id. More generally, it is a pattern of feeling, thought, or behavior arising in response to a perception of psychic danger, enabling a person to avoid conscious awareness of conflicts or anxiety-arousing ideas or wishes. It is an unconscious function of the ego. We have come upon something in the ego itself which is also unconscious, which behaves exactly like the repressed — that is, which produces powerful effects without itself being conscious and which requires special work before it can be made conscious” (2015, np).
“catharsis n. Purging of emotions … In psychoanalysis, catharsis is the bringing to consciousness of repressed ideas, accompanied by the expression of emotions, thereby relieving tension … to produce an abreaction” (2015, np).
|“Structures in the system” (Multiple selfs – unconscious)
= “unconscious ideas” (“existing after repression”) = but, leaving in our consciousness, our marker selfs – you might not appreciate this, but there is a lot of emotions loaded onto each of the selfs, which ought to be explored, but now are unconscious – their emotional concerns are repressed. while the individual selfs, taking turns being conscious continue fulfilling lighter existence goals and needs, while sharing one body
= The Multiple system (each self having “unconscious emotions”) has a “beginning which is prevented from developing”. Is this true? Do the parts not develop with relationships? Perhaps, while danger still exists in the environment. The selfs need safety and trustful nurturing to grow; to be. Perhaps they need structure such as scaffolding, and sometimes a net with someone like Dr. Marvin, who understands and can support repair and development of the selfs deeper needs. (p. 73).
Basically, the “principle of constancy” means that there is a certain “amount of psychic energy” within our many minds that “remains generally constant”. Regulation is what makes things run smooth. Constancy is achieved by “discharging excess energy through releasing painful memories that were repressed,” or by “avoiding an increase of energy through defense mechanisms”
“Defense mechanisms are patterns of feeling, thought, or behavior arising in response to a perception of psychic danger, enabling a person to avoid conscious awareness of anxiety-arousing ideas or wishes. By avoiding dangerous ideas or wishes, the defense mechanism assists in regulating psychic energy,” which keeps us from bouncing off walls. Dr. Marvin must bypass the defense mechanisms to safely reach the deeper goals.
“Repression seems to push down painful memories (by pressure), but pushing them down” keeps things only temporarily safe. Spontaneously, the painful memories can be let out accidentally and rambunctiously, or through the safety of therapy, which is most often a gentler more secure process of blowing off emotional steam.
That which is repressed produces powerful unconscious effects without itself being conscious. There is” special preparatory work,” before the “emotional memories can be made conscious” – like a safety mat presented by someone like Dr. Marvin.
The goal is to bring the once dangerous emotions to consciousness where things can be sorted out – AND it makes the self feel better to let go of the pressure of holding the emotion back, or in expressing the emotion through a wide variety of means, such as art, athletics, dance, etc. (Coleman, 2015, np., & Merriam-Webster Unabridged, 2017 np.).
|“…suggested that bodily based affects are “the center of empathic communication,” and that “the regulation of conscious and unconscious feelings is placed in the center of the clinical stage”” (p. 73).|
|““How do you relate empathically to an unexpressed emotion?” (p. 136). I will argue that unconscious affects can be best understood as not repressed but dissociated affects, and that later-forming repression is associated with left hemispheric inhibition of affects generated by the right brain, whereas early forming dissociation reflects a dysregulation of affects resulting from the dis-integration of the right brain itself” (p. 74).|
|“Although this topic has been controversial, neuroscience now demonstrates a “right hemispheric dominance in processing of unconscious negative emotion” (Sato & Aoki, 2006). Other studies now document a “cortical response to subjectively unconscious danger” (Carretie, Hinojosa, Mercado, & Tapia, 2005). For example, basic research on the neurobiology of survival mechanisms clearly shows that the emotion of fear “is not necessarily conscious; a fearful response may be evoked even when one is not fully aware of being ‘afraid.’… As with emotion itself, the enhanced memory for emotional experiences may proceed at a relatively subconscious level, without clear awareness” (Price, 2005, p. 135)” (p. 74).|
|“Neurobiological studies also demonstrate that the right cortical hemisphere is centrally involved in “the processing of self-images, at least when self-images are not consciously perceived” (Theoret et al., 2004, p. 57). Deep psychotherapeutic changes alter not only conscious but also unconscious self-image associated with nonconscious internal working models of attachment. Both unconscious negative emotions and unconscious self-images are important elements of the psychotherapy process, especially with the more severe self-pathologies” (P. 74).|
|“Thus, the essential roles of the right brain in the “unconscious processing of emotional stimuli” and in “emotional communication” are directly relevant to recent clinical models of an “affective unconscious” and a “relational unconscious,” whereby “one unconscious mind communicates with another unconscious mind” (Schore, 2003a). This dialogue of ultra-rapid bodily based affective communications in patient–therapist (and infant–mother) attachment transactions occurs beneath levels of conscious awareness of both members of the dyad” (p. 74).|
|“Another area of common, intense interdisciplinary interest is the self-regulation of emotion. Affect regulation is usually defined as the set of control processes by which we influence, consciously and voluntarily, the emotions we have, and how we experience and behaviorally express them. However, “Most of moment to moment psychological life occurs through nonconscious means … various nonconscious mental systems perform the lion’s share of the self-regulating burden, beneficently keeping the individual grounded in his or her environment (Bargh & Chartrand, 1999, p. 462)”” (p. 74).|
|“Indeed, a large body of data suggests unconscious affect regulation is more essential than conscious emotion regulation in human survival functions (Schore, 1994, 2003a, 2003b, 2007). There is agreement among both scientists and clinicians that this essential adaptive capacity evolves in early attachment experiences:|
|The developmental achievement of a sense of self that is simultaneously fluid and robust depends on how well the capacity for affect regulation and affective competency has been achieved.… When these early patterns of interpersonal interaction are relatively successful, they create a stable foundation for relational affect regulation that is internalized as nonverbal and unconscious. Thus, further successful negotiation of interpersonal transactions at increasingly higher levels of self-development and interpersonal maturity is made possible. (Bromberg, 2006, p. 32)” (p. 75).|
Colman, A. M. (2015). Dictionary of Psychology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.References
Cooper, J. PhD Psychology/Psychologist. (1985). Per Conversation/written documentation.
Merriam-Webster unabridged, 11 July 2017. Retrieved from unabridged.merriam-webster.com
Schore, A. N. (2012). Right brain affect regulation: An essential mechanism of development, trauma, dissociation, and psychotherapy. In Schore, A. N. The science of the art of psychotherapy (Norton series on interpersonal neurobiology). New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.